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Congratulations! Listed below are the papers selected for the JYE journal. We wish you the best and much success in all your future endeavors and continued explorations.

Conversion of Natural Gas to Alcohol Analogs as an Alternative Energy Source

April 16, 2021


Abstract: The focus of this project is the study of catalysts for the conversion of methane to methanol as a new energy source. The methanol economy may prove to solve the problems that other energy sources create. Transition metals are treasured for their ability to assist with catalyzing reactions, including those which are used in new energy sources such as methanol based. In the past, transition metals have been used for the conversion of methane to methanol. Their catalytic efficiencies of Titanium oxides are modeled and explained based on the compound’s electron structure and how the catalytic efficiency could be improved even more by forcing the catalyst to react with methane in different ways (which are much easier to study computationally than experimentally, due to economic reasons). Catalytic oxidation reactions are crucial for chemical synthesis in pharmaceutical and petrochemicals industries. Prior research results have been controversial regarding the efficiencies of each catalyst. However, the contradictory results are due to inconsistencies of the theoretical and computational models which I reconcile in my model.


[1]Wes, Hickman. "Peak Oil and Public Health: Political Common Ground?" ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 08 Aug. 2011. Web. 13 June 2013.

[2] Olah, George A., Alain Goeppert, and G. K. Surya. Prakash.Beyond Oil and Gas: The Methanol Economy. Weinheim [an Der Bergstrasse, Germany: Wiley-VCH, 2006. Print. 

[3] Kulik, Heather J., and Nicola Marzari. "Electronic Structure and Reactivity of Transition Metal Complexes." Department of Education, 2010. Web. <>. 

[4] Božović, Andrea, Stefan Feil, Gregory K. Koyanagi, Albert A. Viggiano, Xinhao Zhang, Maria Schlangen, Helmut Schwarz, and Diethard K. Bohme. "Conversion of Methane to Methanol: Nickel, Palladium, and Platinum (d9) Cations as Catalysts for the Oxidation of Methane by Ozone at Room Temperature."Chemistry - A European Journal16.38 (2010): 11605-1610. Print. 

[5] Periana, R. A., D. J. Taube, S. Gamble, H. Taube, T. Satoh, and H. Fujii. "ChemInform Abstract: Platinum Catalysts for the High-Yield Oxidation of Methane to a Methanol Derivative."ChemInform29.29 (1998): No. Print. 

[6] Zhang, Rui, and Martin Newcomb. "Laser Flash Photolysis Generation of High-Valent Transition Metal−Oxo Species: Insights from Kinetic Studies in Real Time."Accounts of Chemical Research41.3 (2008): 468-77. Print. 

[7] Betley, Theodore A., Qin Wu, Troy Van Voorhis, and Daniel G. Nocera. "Electronic Design Criteria for O−O Bond Formation via Metal−Oxo Complexes."Inorganic Chemistry47.6 (2008): 1849-861. Print. 

[8] Metz, Ricardo B. "Methane-to-Methanol Conversion by Gas-Phase Transition Metal Oxide Cations: Experiment and Theory." (n.d.): n. pag. Print. 

[9] E. R. Davidson, Adv. Quantum Chem. 6, 235 (1972).

[10] Young, David C.  Computational Chemistry: A Practical Guide for Applying Techniques to Real World Problems. New York: Wiley, 2001. Print.

[11] A. D. Becke, Modern Electronic Structure Theory Part 2 D. R. Yarkony, Ed., 1022,

World Scienti®c, Singapore (1995).

[12] "Advances in electronic structure theory: GAMESS a decade later" M.S.Gordon, M.W.Schmidt pp. 1167-1189, in "Theory and Applications of Computational Chemistry: the first forty years" C.E.Dykstra, G.Frenking, K.S.Kim, G.E.Scuseria (editors), Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2005.


Can I Get a Higher Truth? The Meaning of Life is Subjective

March 10, 2021

Abstract: This paper attempts to answer the conundrum of whether the meaning of life is subjective by analyzing Søren Kierkegaard’s arguments in his work Stages of Life’s Way, and discusses various interpretations of life’s meaningfulness by analyzing the different viewpoints of philosophers— Daan Evers, Richard Taylor, and Susan Wolf. The first part of the paper analyzes Søren Kierkegaard’s three stages of life: aesthetic, ethical, and religious. The paper then analyzes the notion that the meaning of life is personal and there may be endless subjective ways in which one can live a meaningful life via Richard Taylor’s evaluation of Sisyphus’s life in both standard form analysis and its analysis diagrams and Susan Wolf’s remarks on subjectivity and objectivity. We also explore Daan Evers’s claim that the meaning of life requires the existence of objective values. In addition to the Standard Form Analysis, Diagrams for the Logics are also introduced and shown. When considering that the meaning of life is subjective (that meaningfulness comes from within), one must observe the opposite view: that meaningfulness comes from objective values existing outside of the individual. Therefore, we examine two hypothetical versions of Sisyphus, one where he rolls the stone up a hill and builds a beautiful temple, and the other where he rolls the stone for no apparent reason but enjoys doing it. While some philosophers use the second hypothetical claim to discredit subjectivism, arguing that a positive attitude is not enough to project meaning onto one’s existence, subjectivists perceive life from their own individuality—that each belief is unique. The paper concludes that everyone views life subjectively, even if they hold objective values. 



  1. Evers, D. 2017. “Meaning in Life and the Metaphysics of Value,” De Ethica. A Journal of Philosophical, Theological and Applied Ethics, Vol. 4:3, 27-44.

  2. Taylor, R. 2000. “The Meaning of Life,” in Ethics: History, Theory, and Contemporary Issues, Cahn, Markie, (Eds.). New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 948-953.

  3. “Chapter 2: An Expression of Gratitude to Lessing.” Kierkegaard&#39;s Concluding Unscientific Postscript, by Søren Kierkegaard et al., Princeton University Press, 1974, pp.63–86.

  4. “Chapter 2: Selections from &#39;Either/Or&#39; and &#39;Fear and Trembling&#39;.” Kierkegaard&#39;s Concluding Unscientific Postscript, by Søren Kierkegaard et al., Princeton University Press, 1974, pp. 30–63.

  5. Hudecki, Dennis. “Kierkegaard&#39;s Concept of Self.” Philosophy 2553F: Forerunners of Existentialism. Hudecki, Dennis. “Kierkegaard&#39;s Concluding Unscientific Postscript.” Philosophy 2553F: Forerunners of Existentialism.

  6. Hudecki, Dennis. “Some Key Concepts in Fear and Trembling.” Philosophy 2553F: Forerunners of Existentialism.

Strategizing for Economics: How Small Business Survive During Current Pandemic

February 08, 2021


Abstract: The responses to the COVID-19 pandemic have varied significantly across different political systems. Numerous factors may be attributable to the differing rates of infection rates across various countries such as availability of universal healthcare and reliance on public transportation. In fact, the political system of a particular country may determine how that country has addressed the pandemic and thereby affect that country’s infection rates. This paper will compare the political systems, pandemic responses and infection rates of countries. First, each country’s political systems will be briefly described. Next, the two countries’ respective infection rates and pandemic responses will be compared. 
As part of my analysis, I will examine how the US political system may have resulted in more effective or less effective pandemic strategies. Finally, drawing from the strategies used by other countries, two specific suggestions for improving the U.S.’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic will be considered. In a vast country like the US, the best way to mitigate the crisis is to handle it region-by-region due to the vast disparity in economy and population state-by-state rather than governmental intervention. Compared to other countries, the United States is more decentralized and naturally, states have gotten more power regarding laws and quarantines during this crisis (Dziobek, 2010). That being said, although the countries of the world have indeed done much to quarantine the crisis, states must keep control of individual laws (Dziobek, 2010). Specifically, states like California, Florida, Texas, New York and Georgia have the worst second wave of cases in the country. Since the virus is affecting states in different ways than ever imagined, state governments should be moderating the virus based on their situation rather than national lockdowns like in other countries. With five states accounting for more than 40% of all COVID-19 cases, this solution shows much promise for specifically this country.


  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). Geographic Differences in COVID-19 Cases, Deaths, and Incidence — United States, February 12–April 7, 2020. Retrieved from,of%20COVID%2D19.
    Cirillo, P., Taleb, N.N. Tail risk of contagious diseases. Nat. Phys. 16, 606–613 (2020).

  2. Ding, Lei, and Alvaro Sanchez. “COVID-19 and the Philadelphia Fed.” Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, Apr. 2020, 

  3. Dziobek, Claudia, et al. “Measuring Fiscal Decentralization – Exploring the IMF’s Databases.” International Monetary Fund, International Monetary Fund,

  4. Eckfeldt, Bruce. “Key Questions to Guide Your Post-Pandemic Plan.”, Mansueto Ventures, 25 Apr. 2020, 

  5. Fox, Michelle. “How These Small Businesses Are Surviving during the Coronavirus Pandemic.” CNBC, CNBC, 9 Aug. 2020, 

  6. Jiang, I. (2020). Here's the difference between an 'essential' business and a 'nonessential' business as more than 30 states have imposed restrictions. Business Insider. Retrieved from

  7. Lexis Nexus. (2020). Economic Risk—What Is It and How to Effectively Manage It. Retrieved from,that%20may%20adversely%20affect%20profits.

  8. Maxouris, Christina. “US Tops 5 Million Covid-19 Cases, with Five States Making up More than 40% of Tally.” CNN, Cable News Network, 9 Aug. 2020, 


Human Perception and its Manipulative Technology

January 13, 2021

Abstract: The visually manipulative characteristics of VR technology can have many different usages. A prominent one is the usage of VR in the medical field, more specifically, surgery training. Osso VR, a virtual reality surgery training platform, is making its way into residency programs of American medical schools, including the Vanderbilt University School of Medicine and Harvard Medical School. (Fink) The usage of VR is especially effective in surgery training, as an accurate digital simulation of real surgery environments can be created, and surgeons do not have to feel the same pressure and stressful circumstances of a real surgery. 

These technologies all have a commonality: they are manipulating human perception. These technologies all evoke synesthetic experiences across multiple modalities, which means that a visual experience from VR, AR, or 4D cinema can trigger another sensory experience, such as the sense of hearing or touch. These experiences are all possible thanks to the technology that manipulates human perception, and one would not be able to have such experiences in normal daily life.


  1. Chislock, M.F.; Doster, E.; Zitomer, R.A.; Wilson, A.E. (2013)."Eutrophication: Causes, Consequences, and Controls in Aquatic Ecosystems". Nature Education Knowledge. 4 (4): 10. Retrieved 10 March 2018.Cycleback, David Rudd. 2003. “Eye/Brain Physiology and Human Perception of External Reality.” A Look at How Humans Think and See.

  2. Danieau, Fabien, et al. 2014. Toward Haptic Cinematography: Enhancing Movie Experience with Haptic E ects based on Cinematographic Camera Motions. IEEE MultiMedia, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers: 1-14. 

  3. Fink, Charlie. 2018. “Osso VR Surgical Training Makes Push Into Med Schools.” Forbes,                     

  4. Hill, Joe. “3D Pavement Art.” Joe Hill Art.

  5. Howard, Ian P., and Brian J. Rogers. 1995. Binocular Vision and Stereopsis. Oxford University Press, Inc.

  6. Krevelen, D.W.F van, and R. Poelman. 2010. A Survey of Augmented Reality Technologies, Applications and Limitations. Delft University of Technology.

  7. Garciá-Valle, Gonzalo, et al. 2017. Evaluation of Presence in Virtual Environments: Haptic Vest and User’s Haptic Skills. Smith, V., Tilman, G., & Nekola, J. (1999). Eutrophication: Impacts of excess nutrient inputs on freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems. ​Environmental Pollution,100(​ 1-3), 179-196. doi:10.1016/s0269-7491(99)00091-3 12     

  8. Manjoo, Farhad. 2008. “A Look at Disney and Pixar’s 3-D Movie Technology.” Salon.

  9. Summers, Nick. 2016. “Ikea Made a Kitchen Showroom in VR.” Engadget. 

  10. Verrier, Richard. 2009. “3-D Technology Firm RealD Has Starring Role at Movie Theaters.” Los Angeles Times.



A New Paradigm for Computer Vision Based on Compositional Representation

December 11, 2020


AbstractDeep convolutional neural networks - the state-of-the-art technique in artificial intelligence for computer vision - achieve notable success rates at simple classification tasks, but are fundamentally lacking when it comes to representation.

These neural networks encode fuzzy textural patterns into vast matrices of numbers which lack the semantically structured nature of human representations (e.g. "a table is a flat horizontal surface supported by an arrangement of identical legs").

This paper takes multiple important steps towards filling in these gaps. I first propose a series of tractable milestone problems set in the abstract two dimensional ShapeWorld, thus isolating the challenge of object compositionality. Then I demonstrate the effectiveness of a new compositional representation approach based on identifying structure among the primitive elements comprising an image and representing this structure through an augmented primitive element tree and coincidence list. My approach outperforms state-of-the-art benchmark algorithms in speed and structural representation in my object representation milestone tasks, while yielding comparable classification accuracy. Finally, I present a mathematical framework for a probabilistic programming approach that can learn highly structured generative stochastic representations of compositional objects from just a handful of examples.

Keywords – Deep convolutional neural networks, state-of-the-art benchmark algorithms, two dimensional ShapeWorld, compositional objects



[1] A. Krizhevsky, I. Sutskever, and G. E. Hinton. Imagenet classification with deep convolutional neural networks. In F. Pereira, C. J. C. Burges, L. Bottou, and K. Q. Weinberger, editors, Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 25, pages 1097–1105. Curran Associates, Inc., 2012.
[2] H. Wang, B. Gao, J. Bian, F. Tian, and T. Liu. Solving verbal comprehension questions in IQ test by knowledge-powered word embedding. CoRR, abs/1505.07909, 2015.
[3] J. Johnson, B. Hariharan, L. van der Maaten, L. Fei-Fei, C. L. Zitnick, and R. B. Girshick. CLEVR: A diagnostic dataset for compositional language and elementary visual reasoning. CoRR, abs/1612.06890, 2016.
[4] Y. Lecun, L. Bottou, Y. Bengio, and P. Haffner. Gradient-based learning applied to document recognition. Proceedings of the IEEE, 86(11), 1998.
[5] B. Lake, R. Salakhutdinov, J. Gross, and J. Tenenbaum. One shot learning of simple visual concepts. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, 33, 2011.
[6] Image of a leopard-print sofa.

The Evolution of URJ NFTY

October 21, 2020

Abstract: The Union for Reform Judaism’s North American Federation for Temple Youth (URJ NFTY) is a nonprofit organization serving North American Reform Jewish teens. The URJ and NFTY hold strong values tied to Jewish history that are utilized to discuss and advocate for political and social issues, and to mediate teens' relationships to Judaism. URJ NFTY offers teens year-round opportunities to convene, learn, and grow together while forging lasting relationships.
Over the past 10 years, NFTY and its related programming (particularly URJ owned
summer camps) have experienced a significant decrease in participation, causing a gradual decrease in revenue. As a result, the URJ made difficult decisions, including the closure of the URJ Kutz Camp, one of their oldest standing summer programs. Recent trend brought additional financial instability to the organization, causing employment terminations throughout the URJ and across all nineteen NFTY regions. With fewer leaders to guide teens and NFTY/camp alumni, it has become difficult for NFTY to recruit and train its next generation of leaders to advocate against injustice and to preserve the Jewish spirit.

Keywords: URJ, NFTY, URJ Kutz Camp, Judaism,  North American Federation


1. Arquilevich, Ruben. “With Joy, Gratitude & Love, an Update on Summer 2021.” Union for Reform Judaism, 4 Feb. 2021,
2. CampaignWire. “Rising Stars: 18 Members of America's Next Political Generation.”
Medium, The Campaigner, 23 Feb. 2016,
3. ration-de18ab114afa#.raebue8kl. No. 14: Jeremy Cronig
4. Jacobs, Rick. “Beyond 2020: Upcoming Changes at the URJ.” Union for Reform Judaism, 1 Oct. 2020,
5. Jacobs, Rick. “Financials: 2019 URJ Annual Report.” URJ Annual Report,
6. Jacobs, Rick. “Financials: URJ 2015 Annual Report.” Flipbook,
7. Jacobs, Rick. “Financials: URJ 2017 Annual Report.” Flipbook,
8. Jacobs, Rick. “Financials: URJ 2018 Annual Report.” URJ Annual Report,
9. Jacobs, Rick. “Reform Jewish Movement Leadership Statement: ‘We Must All Expect
More from the President of the United States.’” Union for Reform Judaism, 3 Sept. 2019

10. “Joe Biden's Plan to End Gun Violence: Joe Biden for President.” Joe Biden for President: Official Campaign Website, 12 Oct. 2020,
11. Levy, Maya. “Reimagining the Future of NFTY.” NFTY, 11 June 2020,

Study on the Multiple Capacitors to Enhance Electric Field Strength Using Mathematical Modeling and Computational Analysis

June 29, 2020


Abstract: Renewable, green energy is an important field of research amidst the 21st century energy crisis. Many of the researches around the world had been consistently looking for new energy sources, but not as much as on the efficient storage of energy produced from these eco-friendly sources. This research considers how to increase the capacitance through inserting various types of dielectrics to use them as a substantial tool for sustainable development. 

The research focuses on calculating the capacitances of batteries with diverse dielectrics, differing the combinations and geometrical structure of capacitors in order to figure out the capacitances of batteries that can store more energy with better efficiency. Mathematical, physical and computational analysis were employed to figure out the capacitances and stored energy. MATLAB computer programming was used to calculate potential charge distribution within capacitors, the change in the capacitance and electric field of plate capacitors. 

Using mathematical calculations, general expressions for computing the relationship between capacitance and insulation material characteristics, such as dielectric constant, plate dimensions, for n-number of plate capacitors were found. Also the relationship between capacitance, dielectric constant, capacitor dimensions for a thin-walled hollow cylinder was studied. In this work, we showed the influence of the multi-plate capacitor system taking into account the geometrical and types of combinations of the conducting plates.

Keywords: Green energy, capacitance, dielectric constant, conducting plates


  1. William D. Greason (1992). Electrostatic discharge in electronics. Research Studies Press. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-86380-136-5. Retrieved 4 December 2011.

  2. Tipler, Paul; Mosca, Gene (2004). Physics for Scientists and Engineers (5th ed.). Macmillan. p. 752. ISBN 978-0-7167-0810-0

  3. Massarini, A.; Kazimierczuk, M.K. (1997). "Self capacitance of inductors". IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics. 12 (4): 671–676. Bibcode:1997ITPE...12..671M. CiteSeerX doi:10.1109/63.602562: example of the use of the term 'self capacitance'.

  4. Jackson, John David (1999). Classical Electrodynamic (3rd ed.). John Wiley & Sons. p. 43. ISBN 978-0-471-30932-1.

  5. Maxwell, James (1873). "3". A treatise on electricity and magnetism. 1. Clarendon Press. p. 88ff.

  6. "Capacitance : Charge as a Function of Voltage". Retrieved 20 September 2010.

  7. Fundamentals of Electronics. Volume 1b — Basic Electricity — Alternating Current. Bureau of Naval Personnel. 1965. p. 197.

  8. Binns; Lawrenson (1973). Analysis and computation of electric and magnetic field problems. Pergamon Press. ISBN 978-0-08-016638-4.

  9. Rawlins, A. D. (1985). "Note on the Capacitance of Two Closely Separated Spheres". IMA Journal of Applied Mathematics. 34 (1): 119–120. doi:10.1093/imamat/34.1.119.

  10. Vainshtein, L. A. (1962). "Static boundary problems for a hollow cylinder of finite length. III Approximate formulas". Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 32: 1165–1173. 


Natural Language Use of Candidates and Vote Count During the Midterm Election

April 28, 2020

Abstract: In the modern age of politics, political candidates use Twitter to express their ideas and connect with voters. In 2018, Twitter was used by nearly every candidate for the U.S. House of Representatives throughout their political campaign. To analyze the language used on Twitter, we used Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) to analyze a text file (for each candidate) of all tweets from July 1, 2018 to November 6, 2018 to produce a descriptive output of language use in the months preceding the midterm elections. Consistent with past studies, it was predicted that candidates would use words characterized by negative affect on Twitter in order to connect with voters on an emotional level and to gain votes. In-depth analysis relating linguistic variables to vote count provided insight into how politicians used language on Twitter to improve their popularity. As theorized, candidates who used more words consisting of negative emotion obtained a greater number of votes than that of their counterparts. These findings provided support for the hypothesis that words of negative affect are deemed more impactful than neutral or positive words in politics, and that such language is highly correlated, regardless of party affiliation, with vote count. These findings provide a greater understanding of linguistics in the modern age of politics and provide insight into how increasingly prevalent social media platforms are factoring into politics.

Keywords: Political candidates, natural language, vote count, midterm election


[1] Burgess, Jean, and Cornelius Puschmann. Twitter and Society. Edited by Katrin Weller, Axel Bruns, and Merja Mahrt. New York: Peter Lang, 2014.

[2] Kahn, J. H., Tobin, R. M., Massey, A. E., & Anderson, J. A. (2007). Measuring Emotional Expression with the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count. The American Journal of Psychology,120(2), 263. doi:10.2307/20445398

[3] Larsson, A. O., & Moe, H. (2012). Studying Political Microblogging: Twitter Users in the 2010 Swedish Election Campaign. SAGE Journals,14(5), 729-747. doi:10.1177/1461444811422894

[4] Lau, R. R. (1982). Negativity in Political Perception. Political Behavior, 4(4), 353–377. doi: 10.1007/bf00986969

[5] Marres, N., & Weltevrede, E. (2013). Scraping The Social? Issues in real-time social research. Journal of Cultural Economy,6(3), 313-335. doi:10.1080/17530350.2013.772070

Assessment of Stereochemical Properties of Fullerenes and CNTs as Potential Targeted Nano-scaled Compounds in the Treatment of Neurodegenerative and Tumor Cell

April 09, 2020


AbstractOxidation of the cells in the human organ causes tumor but information on the subcellular localization of oxidative molecules has not been known in detail. It is highly desirable to find the properties of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and oxidative reactions in biomembranes in human cells on a nano-scaled level for the proper mechanism of carcinogenesis.
In this project, hydrated Fullerenes(C60/C40-HyFn) and  functionalized Carbon Nanotubes(CNTs) molecules were thermodynamically studied. Fullerenes and CNTs are considered as potential targeted nano-scaled compounds in the treatment of tumor cells to determine whether the molecules stabilize or destabilize the molecules.  The Auto Optimize Tool in the computational software was used for each Carbon Nanotubes(CNTs) and hydrated Fullerene derivatives modeled in this project to determine its optimization energy. The Universal Force Field (UFF) option was selected for all the molecules modeled.

Keywords – Nanotubes(CNTs), Hydrated Fullerenes(C60/C40-HyFn), Auto Optimize Tool, Carcinogenesis


[3] Hider, R. C., Roy, S., Ma, Y. M., Kong, X. L., & Preston, J. (2011). The potential application of iron chelators for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Metallomics, 3(3), 239–249. doi: 10.1039/c0mt00087f
[4] Dusek, P., Schneider, S. A., & Aaseth, J. (2016). Iron chelation in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, 38, 81–92. doi: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2016.03.010

Depolarizing Polarity: Data Mining Shared Likes on Twitter to Uncover Political Gateway Groups

February 20, 2020


Abstract: This project applies a new theory in the field of intergroup conflict known as "Gateway group theory," which posits that to decrease conflict between two groups, a third group with specific characteristics that appeal to both sides needs to be identified, enabling them to act as a medium. This group is known as a "Gateway group." With the background of the bitter digital divide and echo chambers plaguing the United States’ current political discourse, this paper sought to find the Gateway group between polar Democrats and Republicans on Twitter. 

This project data mined and examined the shared “likes” of these two populations using originally developed code and definitional parameters. Then, the study analyzed the profiles of the authors of these liked Tweets to compile an aggregated Gateway group profile that can be used to find Gateway group individuals on Twitter who have the ability to decrease conflict between Democrats and Republicans. The study found that Gateway group members exist. They are a group of Moderate Democrats. Every post that was liked by both a Democrat and Republican was also tagged and analyzed for similarities in content. It was found that 55% of all posts referenced “Trump” and 92% of those votes had a negative sentiment. Additional similarities in content were found, for example a keen interest in elections and certain Democratic candidates. This project develops an effective methodology that can be applied to any conflict on Twitter to find the Gateway group for that conflict to decrease polarity between polar groups.

Keywords: Gateway group theory, Democrat and Republican, political discourse, Twitter


Bessi, A. (2016). Personality traits and echo chambers on facebook. Computers in Human Behavior,65, 319-324. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2016.08.016
Demszky, D., Garg, N., Voigt, R., Zou, J., Shapiro, J., Gentzkow, M., & Jurafsky, D. (2019).

Gaertner, S. L., & Dovidio, J. F. (2012). The Common Ingroup Identity Model. Handbook of Theories of Social Psychology,2, 439-457.  ttp://

Gaertner, S. S., Dovidio, J. F., Anastasio, P. A., Bachman, B. A., & Rust, M. C. (1993). The Common Ingroup Identity Model: Recategorization and the Reduction of Intergroup Bias.

European Review of Social Psychology,4(1), 1-26. doi: Goyal, S. (2005). Strong and Weak Links. Journal of the European Economic Association,
3(2/3), 608-616. Retrieved from

Hornsey, M. J., & Hogg, M. A. (2000). Subgroup Relations: A Comparison of Mutual Intergroup Differentiation and Common Ingroup Identity Models of Prejudice Reduction. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin,26(2), 242-256. doi:10.1177/0146167200264010

Pettigrew, T. F., Tropp, L. R., Wagner, U., & Christ, O. (2011). Recent advances in intergroup contact theory. International Journal of Intercultural Relations,(35), 271-280.

Zollo, F., Novak, P. K., Vicario, M. D., Bessi, A., Mozetič, I., Scala, A., . . . Quattrociocchi, W. (2015). Emotional Dynamics in the Age of Misinformation. Plos One,10(9). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0138740